Journal on Baltic Security Special Issue



Exploring ‘resistance’ in the Resistance Operating Concept 

Guest editor: Col. Kevin D. Stringer, PhD 


In the five years since the occupation of Crimea and war in Eastern Ukraine, NATO has implemented several deterrence measures on its Eastern flank to significantly increase alliance presence and the credibility of its commitments.  With these measures implemented, efforts have turned to the internal preparation of relevant members to deal with potential Russian aggression both below and above the Article 5 threshold. Particular focus concentrates on developing ways to counter hybrid threats while reviving concepts such as ‘total defence’ and ‘resistance.’  
In this vein, the Journal on Baltic Security (JoBS) dedicated an entire issue 5(2) to the discussion of total defence and its understanding in the three Baltic countries. With greater attention being paid to the Resistance Operating Concept (ROC) and how different states implement it in their defence systems, the next issue of the Journal will focus on the opportunities and limitations of the concept and its implementation within Eastern Europe, specifically in the three Baltic countries. 

In issue 6(1) of the Journal on Baltic Security, dr. Asta Maskaliunaite published an article which serves as a trigger for this discussion (see here). The piece noted areas where the resistance concept needs more elaboration and discussion. Particularly focusing on the underground organizations prepared in the pre-conflict phase, the article highlighted the following key areas for greater elaboration:  

  • Command and control issues. How to ensure adequate C2 of the resistance organization particularly during the occupation phase?
  • Resistance organization and legitimacy. How to ensure the legitimacy of the organization beyond its legal framework?
  • Recruitment to the organization. How to ensure organizations are recruiting vetted, reliable, diverse, and psychologically resilient members?
  • Communication on the organization. How should resistance organizations be presented to the societies inside and outside the countries?
  • Long-term perspective. What should be the rules for ending the resistance and dealing with the past occupation? How is the resistance experience to be assessed post-conflict?


In addition to any of the above topics, the current issue proposes to discuss: 

  • Resistance and territorial defence. How should territorial defence forces be integrated into resistance?
  • Resistance and conventional forces. How can the two concepts be integrated? What mechanisms can be the basis for the collaboration of the two forces?
  • Undergrounds. What concepts, structures/networks are applicable to these organizations? What are the risks of their implementation?
  • Preparation for resistance. What are the risks and considerations to be considered?
  • New cases and examples for analysis. What can we learn from non-Western experiences? How to prepare and what risks to assess when considering urban resistance operations?
  • Beyond armed resistance. What are the possibilities and potential effects of non-violent resistance within a national defence plan?



Administrative information and deadlines


We are looking for articles within these aforementioned and broad themes of 3.000-5.000 words. 

The Journal uses Harvard style of referencing. 

JoBS is an Open Access journal, published under Creative Commons Attribution license. 

Deadline for submission of title: 15 December 2021
Deadline for submitting abstract proposals (up to 250 words): 3 January 2022
Deadline for submissions of articles: 1 May 2022

Queries and submissions should be sent to: 
Guest editor: Col. Kevin Stringer, PhD.  E-mail:  
Editor-in-chief: dr. Asta Maskaliunaite. E-mail: 


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