Dr. Viljar Veebel

Fellow on Russian Strategic and Military Studies

Email: viljar.veebel@baltdefcol.org

Phone: 372 717 6062

Office: Room 401


Viljar Veebel is researcher of the Department of Political and Strategic Studies at the Baltic Defence College. He holds a B.A. in International Relations from University of Tartu, M.A in International relations from University of Tartu (“Spill-over barrier in European integration process”) and doctoral degree in political science (Ph.D.) from University of Tartu (“The Role and Impact of Positive Conditionality in the EU Pre-Accession Policy”). He has worked as academic advisor of the Estonian government in the European Future Convention and as researcher for several research institutions, including OSCE, SIDA, the European Council on Foreign Relations, Estonian Foreign Policy Institute, Latvia Institute of International Affairs and Eurasia Group. He has been lecturing in University of Tartu, Estonian National Defence College, Ukrainian Diplomatic Academy, OSCE Border Management Staff College and Estonian Diplomatic Academy. His main areas of competence cover: Russian military doctrine and strategic ambitions; game theory non-cooperative game models in security studies and deterrence; positive conditionality concept in initiating reforms and policy change; concepts and models of deterrence for small nation states; hybrid warfare and concept of deterrence during hybrid warfare.

Work Experience

2017 –            Research fellow, Baltic Defence College
2013 – 2017  Associate Professor, Estonian National Defence College
2015 – 2016  Visiting lecturer at Johann Skytte Institute of Tartu University
2004 – 2016  Lecturer of International relations, Estonian School of Diplomacy
2014 – 2016  OSCE Border Management Staff College, lecturer
2004 – 2012  Lecturer of International relations and European studies, University of Tartu 
2006 – 2007  External expert for the master program development, Ukrainian Diplomatic Academy
2002 – 2003  Advisor of the Estonian Government in the Future Convention of Europe 

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Specific competence areas


2012 – Estonian National Research board reward in category of doctoral dissertations 


Scopus and Web of Science indexed

  1. Loik, Ramon; Hämäläinen, Erkki; Veebel, Viljar (2016). Internal Security Cooperation under Functional Expectations: Initial Law Enforcement Europeanization - Case of Finland and Estonia. Romanian Journal of European Affairs, 16 (1), 5−23.
  2. Veebel, Viljar; Markus, Raul (2016). At the Dawn of a New Era of Sanctions: Russian-Ukrainian Crisis and Sanctions. Orbis, 60 (1)
  3. Veebel, Viljar; Namm, Andra (2016). Testing the models of transition in practice: the case-studies of Estonia and Slovenia. Brazilian Journal of Political Economy, 36 (2), 389−409
  4. Veebel, V.; Markus, R. (2015). Lessons from the EU-Russia sanctions 2014-2015. Baltic Journal of Law & Politics, 8 (1), 165−194
  5. Veebel, V.; Markus, R. (2016). Will sanctions against Russia be successful: will Russia fall before Ukraine? Journal of security and Sustainability Issues, 5 (4) 465-480
  6. Veebel, Viljar; Ploom, Illimar; Kulu, Liina. (2015). Shortcomings of the EU state aid model from peripheral perspective: the case of Estonian Air. Baltic Journal of Economics, 15 (1), 50−64
  7. Veebel, V.; Kulu, L. (2015). Against the political expectations and theoretical models: how to implement austerity and not to lose political power. Baltic Journal of Economics, 1(14), 1 - 15.
  8. Veebel, Viljar; Markus, Raul (2015). Europe´s Refugee Crisis in 2015 and Security Threats from the Baltic Perspective. Journal of Politics and Law, 8 (4), 254−262,
  9. Veebel, Viljar; Kulu, Liina; Tartes, Annika (2014). Conceptual factors behind the poor performance of the European Neighbourhood policy. Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review, 31 (2014)
  10. Veebel, Viljar (2009). European Union’s Positive Conditionality Model in Pre-Accession Process. Trames: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 3(63/58), 207 - 231.

Peer reviewed journal articles

  1. Veebel, Viljar (2016). Balancing between solidarity and responsibility: Estonia in the EU refugee crisis. Journal on Baltic Security, 1 (2), 28−61.
  2. Veebel, Viljar; Markus, Raul (2015). Wie groß sind die Aussichten auf Erfolg der Russland-Sanktionen? Sicherheit und Frieden, 33, 3, 156−160
  3. Veebel, Viljar (2016). Estonia Confronts Propaganda: Russia Manipulates Media in Pursuit of Psychological Warfare. Per Concordiam, 7 (1)
  4. Veebel, Viljar; Markus, Raul (2015). Europe´s Refugee Crisis in 2015 and Security Threats from the Baltic Perspective. Journal of Politics and Law, 8 (4), 254−262
  5. Veebel, Viljar (2014). A Choice between Dependence and Interdependence: The Baltic States in Quest for Peace and Prosperity. Journal of Politics and Law, 7(4), 1 - 9.
  6. Veebel, Viljar (2014). Estonian Development Co-operation Dynamics, Reasoning and Challenges. Latvijas intereses in Eiropas Savienībā, 3, 19 - 31.
  7. Veebel, Viljar; Markus, Raul (2013). Why and How Supranational Institutions Became Central Stakeholders in the Eurozone Debt Crisis 2008–2012? Baltic Journal of Political Science
  8. Pettai, V.; Veebel, V. (2005). Navigating between Policy and Populace: Estonia, its Accession Referendum and the EU Convention. Politique Européenne, 15, 113 - 35.


Veebel, V. (2012). The Role and Impact of Positive Conditionality in the EU Pre-Accession Policy Tartu: Tartu University Press

Book chapters

  1. Veebel, Viljar (2017) Estonia: On the way to a European army, In: Strategic Autonomy and European Defense: On the way to a European army? Verlag J.H.W. Dietz
  2. Veebel, Viljar (2015). Baltic Dilemmas around Liberal Trade Values and Modern Mercantilism of the European Union. In: Spruds, Andris; Potjomkina, Diana (Ed.). Latvian Foreign and Security Policy Yearbook 2015 (142−155). Riga: Latvian Institute of International Affairs.
  3. Veebel, Viljar; Loik, Ramon. (2012). Life in Post-Communist Eastern Europe after EU Membership. Estonia. Donnacha O Beachain, Vera Sheridan and Sabina Stan. (eds.). Life in Post-Communist Eastern Europe after EU Membership (163 - 184). Taylor & Francis
  4. Veebel, Viljar (2016). Estonia: Independence and Interdependence. In: Jenning, Josef (Ed.). Keeping Europeans Together (52−55). European Council on Foreign Relations.
  5. Veebel, Viljar (2014). European institutional adjustments and three choices and perspectives for Latvia and Estonia. Spruds, Andris (eds.). Latvian Foreign Policy Yearbook 2013 (7 - 18). LIIA
  6. Veebel, Viljar (2009). The EU New Member States as Agenda Setters in Enlarged European Union:Estonia. Lessenski, Marin (eds.). The EU New Member States as Agenda Setters in Enlarged EU
  7. Kasekamp, A.; Veebel, V. (2007). Overcoming doubts: The Baltic States and European Security and Defence Policy. The Estonian Foreign Policy Yearbook 2007 (9 - 32). Eesti Välispoliitika Instituut
  8. Kasekamp, A.; Veebel, V. (2007). The Baltic States and ESDP. Klaus Brummer (Toim.). The North and ESDP (9 - 21). Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung
  9. Veebel, V. (2004). Conditionality and Dependence as Key Elements in SimultaneousDemocratization and Crises Prevention. The Estonian Foreign Policy Yearbook 2004 (63 - 85).
  10. Veebel, V. (2003). Estonian choices influencing the Debate on the Future of Europe. Kasekamp, A. (eds.). The Estonian Foreign Policy Yearbook (131 - 163). Tallinn: Varrak

Published conference presentations

  1. Veebel, Viljar (2016). Taking initiative in cyber deterrence against Russia? Riga Conference Views: The Riga Conference 2016, 28-29 October 2016. Riga, Latvia: LATO
  2. Veebel, Viljar (2015). The economic ties between Russia and the Baltic countries in 2004-2015: the bust, the boom and the sanctions in mutual trade relations. The Riga Security Conference, 6-7 November 2015, Riga, Latvia. Latvian Transatlantic Organization (LATO)
  3. Veebel, Viljar (2012). European Union's External Relations and Diplomacy: More effective after the Lisbon Treaty? Institutional Consolidation and Responding to New Challenges”, Nicosia, Cyprus, 14-15 June. The Trans European Policy Studies Association

Areas of Expertise

Selected Publications



ACADEMIA: https://ksk.academia.edu/ViljarVeebel
RESEARCH GATE: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Viljar_Veebel
GOOGLE SCHOLAR: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=uVwabgYAAAAJ&hl=en
ETIS: https://www.etis.ee/Portal/Persons/Display/ada041ba-f477-4fdb-b864-a05fe2e2064a?tabId=CV_ENG